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Deciphering the Thyroid Enigma: Exploring the Global Impact of COVID-19on Autoimmune Pathways and Euthyroid Patients

By
Ladislao Javier Gimenez Olivieri ,
Ladislao Javier Gimenez Olivieri

Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud Universidad Abierta Interamericana

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Gerardo Erico Laube ,
Gerardo Erico Laube

Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud Universidad Abierta Interamericana

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Abstract

Introduction: This research delves into the complex interaction between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and thyroid disorders. With the growing body of evidence suggesting a connection between COVID-19 infection and the onset of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) and non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), this study aims to unravel the underlying mechanisms, identify risk factors, and explore the geographic prevalence of these conditions. The research addresses the critical need to understand the long-term implications of SARS-CoV-2 infection on thyroid health and its relationship with the phenomenon known as "long COVID". Summary: The study focuses on autoimmune manifestations, particularly AITDs, examining the relationship between COVID-19 and thyroid disorders such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease. Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (TGSA) induced by the virus and the persistence of thyroid symptoms beyond the acute phase of infection are explored. The importance of factors such as glandular trophism, pathophysiology, and the presence of symptoms in "long COVID" is emphasized. Materials and Methods: The research methodology is based on a comprehensive review of scientific literature, spanning studies from 2021 to 2023. Recognized databases such as NIH, PubMed, Cochrane, and Elsevier were utilized, prioritizing  systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and relevant case reports. The search focused on risk factors, thyroid manifestations in COVID-19 patients.  Results: The findings address the correlation between thyroid dysfunction and the severity of COVID-19, the impact of fT3 hormone as a predictor, and the relationship between thyroid disorders and "long COVID" syndrome. Results from various researchers are presented, including diagnostic methods, treatment modalities, and potential interventions. Conclusion: The thesis concludes that SARS-CoV-2 infection can trigger thyroid disorders, especially AITDs and NTIS, highlighting immune dysregulation as a central factor. Diagnostic strategies are proposed, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors are discussed, and the importance of addressing persistent symptoms in "long COVID" is emphasized. The research significantly contributes to the understanding of this complex interaction, providing crucial insights for future investigations and clinical practice

How to Cite

1.
Gimenez Olivieri LJ, Laube GE. Deciphering the Thyroid Enigma: Exploring the Global Impact of COVID-19on Autoimmune Pathways and Euthyroid Patients. SCT Proceedings in Interdisciplinary Insights and Innovations [Internet]. 2024 Jun. 11 [cited 2024 Jul. 18];2:328. Available from: https://proceedings.saludcyt.ar/index.php/piii/article/view/328

The article is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Unless otherwise stated, associated published material is distributed under the same licence.

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